Turkey offers three basic visa programs. Short Term Resident Permit, Permanent Resident Permit and Turkish Citizenship. While Permanent Residency and Citizenship require some sort of investment in the country, a Short Term Turkish Resident Permit does not require any investment.
The Temporary Resident Visa Permit is not offered by the Turkish Consulates &/or Turkish Embassies. The TRV is only offered inside of Turkey. In order to begin your residency permit application, you have to make a trip to Istanbul on a tourist visa. Whilst you are in Istanbul, your short-term residence permit can be applied for.
You need to be physically present in Turkey, on a valid tourist (not business/work) visa when your application is filed. It takes anywhere from 1-to-2 weeks to get an interview and up to 4-5 weeks to obtain your residency card. The goal is to file immediately upon your arrival in Istanbul so that your interview can be arranged for in 2-5 days time.
However, note that you cannot work on a resident permit. Once your resident permit card has been granted you are free to live, move about, fly in/out of Turkey as you wish. Additionally, you can seek employment opportunities as well but, if you wish to work in Turkey, you have to obtain a work permit. Once you find employment, then your employer will issue you the necessary paperwork for you to apply for a work permit visa.